Comparing School Music Programs and Science Test Scores of Countries Worldwide
If we examine the top three ranked countries on the 1988 test, we see some fascinating parallels between academic achievement and music education.
In a 1988 study cited by Frank Hodsoll, Chairman of the National Endowment of the Arts, he noted that in grades 1-6, the Japanese require two class periods per week (of music).
Music includes singing, instrumental performance, and appreciation of both western and Japanese music.
At middle level, students learn to sing in choruses and play instruments in ensembles (DOE 1987)...